[12] They had seven children: María Cristina (1949), Jorge Horacio (1950), Alejandro Eugenio (1951–1971), María Isabel (1954), Pedro Ignacio (1956), Fernando Gabriel (1961) and Rafael Patricio (1963). "[65] The children were given to military families for illegal adoption, and their identities were hidden. General Jorge Rafael Videla was the dictator who brought terror to his country in the second half of the 1970s, plunging it into a “dirty war” against subversion. Two days after the coup, Videla formally assumed the post of President of Argentina. Videla was always a practising Roman Catholic. [51], But the new President Jimmy Carter highlighted issues of human rights and in 1978 secured a congressional cutoff of all US arms transfers to Argentina.[52]. In 2003, Congress repealed the Ley de Punto Final, which had ended prosecutions for crimes under the dictatorship. Rétrospective. My subordinates followed my orders," he told an Argentine court. There was a wound to heal. In a televised address to the nation, President Menem said, "I have signed the decrees so we may begin to rebuild the country in peace, in liberty and in justice ... We come from long and cruel confrontations. W chwili objęcia władzy przez juntę kraj był pogrążony w katastrofie gospodarczej, wysokiej inflacji i korupcji. Tę stronę ostatnio edytowano 15 cze 2020, 18:23. Jorge Rafael Videla, (born August 2, 1925, Mercedes, Argentina—died May 17, 2013, Buenos Aires), career military officer who was president of Argentina from 1976 to 1981. Context In order to understand the unique nature of the last military dictatorship in Argentina (1976-1983) and the fact that, in terms of human rights violations, it was the cruellest ever experienced in the Southern Cone, it is necessary first of all to outline some general historical characteristics of Argentina in the twentieth century. The report was published in 1984 and documented the sweeping brutality and repression imposed by the military during its seven year rule. They became known as the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo (Madres de Plaza de Mayo). The children whom they bore in prison were taken from them, illegally adopted by military families of the regime, and their identities were hidden for decades. The black market and shortages disappeared. Videla wrócił jeszcze na krótko do więzienia w 1998 roku, kiedy sąd uznał go za winnego mniej znanych porwań w czasie tzw. EN. 2 sierpnia 1925 w Mercedes w Argentynie, zm. 22 grudnia 2010 były dyktator ponownie został skazany na dożywocie[1]. The new government began prosecution of top-ranking officers for crimes committed during the dictatorship in what was called the Trial of the Juntas of 1985. “War, by nature, is cruel” Videla said. Videl zawiesił parlament, działalność partii politycznych i związków zawodowych. Ze względu na stan zdrowia, więzienie zamieniono Videli na areszt domowy. Translator. Durant la dictature de Videla, 500 bébés on été enlevé de leur mères à la naissance. Videla served at the Ministry of Defence from 1958 to 1960 and thereafter he directed the Military Academy until 1962. During July and August 1975, Videla was the Head of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (Estado Mayor Conjunto) of the Argentine Armed Forces. La défaite de l’armée argentine marqua la fin de la dictature. [46] The period ended in a tenfold devaluation and one of the worst financial crisis in Argentine history. FORMER Argentine dictator Jorge Videla, jailed for crimes against humanity as the head of a military junta between 1976 and 1981, has died in prison. Le drapeau militaire de l'Empire Japonais, entre 1905 et 1945. Date of Birth: August 21, 1925 Birth Place: Mercedes, Buenos Aires Le 24 mars 1976, le général argentin Jorge Rafael Videla, placé à la tête d’une junte militaire argentine, opère un coup d’État qui renverse la présidence d’Isabel Perón.Une sévère dictature militaire est alors instaurée ; une dictature que répressions, détentions, tortures et exécutions viennent alimenter. [33] Terence Roehrig estimates that of the disappeared "at least 10,000 were involved in various ways with the guerrillas". "[63] During the trial, Videla had said that "yesterday's enemies are in power and from there, they are trying to establish a Marxist regime" in Argentina. Former Argentine military ruler Jorge Videla goes on trial for the murder of more than 30 political prisoners in 1976. 12 juin 2012. Jorge Videla, the former Argentine military dictator who oversaw the forced disappearance of thousands of let-wing activists, has died aged 87. [20] Videla narrowly escaped three assassination attempts by the Montoneros and ERP between February 1976 and April 1977. In response, the junta hired the Burson-Marsteller ad agency to formulate a pithy comeback: Los argentinos somos derechos y humanos (Literally, "We the Argentines are righteous and humane"). [60] On 25 April 2007, a federal court struck down Videla's presidential pardon and restored his convictions for human rights abuses. En 1978, le Pérou subit la dictature militaire du général Francisco Morales Bermudez. He was 87. L'Argentine a connu au XX e siècle plusieurs régimes dictatoriaux, dont le plus connu est : la junte de 1976-1983 (dirigée au départ par le général Jorge Rafael Videla) Les autres comptent : la dictature de José Félix Uriburu dans les années 1930, dite aussi Décennie infâme ; [4] On 5 July 2010, Videla took full responsibility for his army's actions during his rule. C'est derrière les barreaux qu'il a rendu son dernier souffle. Jorge Rafael Videla Redondo (ur. [40] Politically, all legislative power was concentrated in the hands of Videla's nine-man junta, and every important position in the national government was filled with loyal military officers. Videla was imprisoned for five years. Former Argentine dictator Jorge Rafael Videla died in his sleep while serving life in prison for crimes against humanity aged 87. The 1976 Argentine coup d'état was a right-wing coup that overthrew Isabel Perón as President of Argentina on 24 March 1976. Je vous invite à lire ces 2 commentaires sur la dictature de Videla en Argentine, qui offrent une autre manière de lire l'histoire que celle présentée par Paranagua, l'auteur de l'article. Massera, Videla et Agosti, chefs de la première junte militaire argentine de 1976 à 1980. Menem also pardoned the leftist guerrilla commanders accused of terrorism. L’histoire de l’Argentine au XXème siècle est jalonnée par les interventions militaires, dont la dictature de 1976-1983 est le point culminant. His representative, Antonio Samoré, successfully prevented full-scale war. The Baltimore Sun reported at the beginning of 1976 that, In the jungle-covered mountains of Tucuman, long known as 'Argentina's garden', Argentines are fighting Argentines in a Vietnam-style civil war. One of Videla's greatest challenges was his image abroad. Działała lewicowa partyzantka (Rewolucyjna Armia Ludu i Montoneros) oraz zbrojne grupy prawicy peronistowskiej. 6 nov. 2016 - Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Les honneurs militaires ne seront pas rendus à Jorge Videla à l'occasion de ses obsèques car son grade de général de l'armée argentine lui a été retiré. After steady promotion as a junior officer in the infantry, he attended the War College between 1952 and 1954 and graduated as a qualified staff officer. Linguee. Nadia Tahir est maître de conférence à l’Univer- sité Caen-Normandie. During this time, the country was ruled by a military junta headed by General Augusto Pinochet. The military junta took power during a period of terrorist attacks from the Marxist groups ERP, the Montoneros, FAL, FAR and FAP, who had gone underground after Juan Perón's death in July 1974, and violent right-wing kidnappings, tortures and assassinations from the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance, led by José López Rega, Perón's Minister of Social Welfare, and other death squads. Country: Argentina Terms: De Facto President 03/24/1976 to 03/29/1981 Preceded by: Isabel Peron Succeeded by: Roberto Viola. Elle a notamment publié Argentine : mémoires de la dictature, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2015. Once the democratic rule was restored in 1983, the Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina (Tratado de Paz y Amistad), which acknowledged Chilean sovereignty over the islands, was signed and ratified by popular referendum. La dictature de Videla en Argentine. brudnej wojny. But one of Videla’s key backers, the late President Ronald Reagan, continues to be honored by Americans. En 1978, elle s'était déroulée en Argentine dans un contexte très particulier. In 1971, he was promoted to brigadier general and appointed by Alejandro Agustin Lanusse as Director of the National Military College. [21], Justice Minister Ricardo Gil Lavedra, who formed part of the 1985 tribunal judging the military crimes committed during the Dirty War, later declared, "I sincerely believe that the majority of the victims of the illegal repression were guerrilla militants". The political process initiated on 24 March 1976, took the official name of National … Latest Stories. W 1990 roku prezydent Carlos Menem ułaskawił byłego dyktatora. More Skins by that_typical_argentine. Albano Eduardo Harguindeguy (born 1927) was a general of the Argentine Army, and the interior minister of Argentina under dictator Jorge Rafael Videla, during the National Reorganization Process (1976–1983).. Harguindeguy, allegedly involved in human rights abuses, benefitted from the pardon human rights abuses, benefitted from the pardon An estimated 400 children were stolen during this period, often from mothers who gave birth in prison and who were later "disappeared." Demokracja została przywrócona w 1983 roku. [62] In handing down the sentence, judge María Elba Martínez said that Videla was "a manifestation of state terrorism. Au cœur de la dictature, c'est Jorge Videla qui remit la Coupe du monde de football 1978 au capitaine de l'équipe argentine, Daniel Passarella, « El Pistolero ». Watch Queue Queue Translate texts with the world's best machine translation technology, developed by the creators of Linguee. Tout en questionnant les lectures économicistes et celles qui interprètent la dernière dictature argentine comme l’expression du mal ou du pouvoir absolu, cet article analyse les ambitieux objectifs politiques du Processus de réorganisation nationale, ainsi nommé par les militaires. Both men were freed after Bergoglio took extraordinary, behind-the-scenes action to save them, including persuading dictator Jorge Videla's family priest to call in sick so that Bergoglio could say Mass in the junta leader's home, where he privately appealed for mercy. In 2005, the Argentine Supreme Court ruled that the law had been unconstitutional. [72] Hernán Lombardi, Minister of Culture of Buenos Aires city, praised Argentine democracy for having tried and sentenced the dictator. Deputy Ricardo Gil Lavedra of the Radical Civic Union said that Videla will be remembered as a dictator, while Hermes Binner expressed condolences to the victims of his government. Videla was also convicted of the theft of many babies born during the captivity of their mothers at the illegal detention centres and passing them on for illegal adoption by associates of the regime. W 1981 roku przekazał urząd prezydenta generałowi Roberto Eduardo Violi. A military junta was formed, made up of him, representing the Army; Admiral Emilio Massera representing the Navy; and Brigadier General Orlando Ramón Agosti representing the Air Force.[15]. [69] According to a 2009 ruling by the military, he (and others convicted of human rights violations) were not eligible for a military funeral. The military junta is remembered for the forced disappearances of large numbers of students. Washington, D.C., March 23, 2006 - On the eve of the 30th anniversary of the military coup in Argentina, the National Security Archive posted a series of declassified U.S. documents and, for the first time, secret documents from Southern Cone intelligence agencies recording detailed evidence of massive atrocities committed by the military junta in Argentina. Last year Videla told an Argentine journalist that the crackdown he oversaw was the price that Argentina had to pay in order to remain a republic. He came to power in a coup d'état that deposed Isabel Martínez de Perón. During Videla's regime, Argentina rejected the binding Report and decision of the Court of Arbitration over the Beagle conflict at the southern tip of South America and started Operation Soberanía in order to invade the islands. By june of 2019, 130 of these adoptees had their identities restored. Argentina's former dictator Jorge Videla dies . Translate texts with the world's best machine translation technology, developed by the creators of Linguee. Historian Daniel Muchnik attributed this to many Jews gravitating to political activism and armed resistance groups such as the ERP and FAP during the period. Życiorys. [27] Some 1,500 to 4,000 were drugged into a stupor, loaded into military aircraft, stripped naked and then thrown into the Rio de la Plata and Atlantic Ocean to drown in what became known as "death flights. [71], Several Argentine politicians commented on his death. Former Argentine dictator Jorge Rafael Videla dies, imprisoned for crimes against humanity. 29 marca objął formalnie funkcję prezydenta[1]. Jorge Rafael Videla Redondo[1] (/vɪˈdɛlə/; Spanish: [ˈxoɾxe rafaˈel biˈðela]; 2 August 1925 – 17 May 2013) was a General Commander of the Army, member of military junta and dictator of Argentina for five years. On 6 September 2006, Judge Norberto Oyarbide ruled that the pardons granted by President Menem were unconstitutional. [7] Three days later, Videla took full responsibility for his army's actions during his rule, saying, "I accept the responsibility as the highest military authority during the internal war. Ses recherches portent sur la dictature argentine, les associations de victimes, les politiques et les lieux de mémoire. He was born on August 2, 1925, in Mercedes, a town in Buenos Aires province.